HEPES is a biological response modifier (BRM). It is one of a group known as zwitterions. Dr. Norman Good discovered the molecule in 1966. Dr. Good demonstrated that HEPES (and other zwitterions) increased mitochondrial activity. It raised the rate of oxidative phosphorylation (a basic reaction in metabolism). Dr. Good focused on the ability of HEPES capacity to act as a buffer. For years HEPES was considered just a buffer. In 1997 I described numerous effects of HEPES as a biological response modifier.

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HEPES is a true biological response modifier (BRM). The effects of HEPES as broad immune stimulant and its effects on cytokines has been demonstrated. Effects are dose dependent. HEPES anti-viral effect has been noted. HEPES has also been shown to inhibit the conversion of prion protein. HEPES has been shown to improve O2 saturation in COPD. HEPES primary action is in the mitochondria and increases the rate of oxidative phosphorylation.

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Mitochondrial Activity and HEPES II

Mitochondrial activity: HEPES and other zwitterions are true biological response modifiers. Years ago they were discovered by Dr. Norman Good at Roswell Park. It is interesting that he concentrated on their effects as a “buffer”. Dr. Good noted that HEPES and the other “Good buffers” increased the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. HEPES showed the greatest increase. I described the biological response modifying effects of HEPES “buffers” in 1998. Among the many effects of HEPES, it was shown that the compound induced “extramedullary hematopoiesis”. As much research is directed towards drugs that effect mitochondria – Perhaps it is time to look back at something that really works. For instance, if a compound can increase mitochondrial activity – what effect does this have on disease processes?

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Scientific Obfuscation

The article is entitled:”Monoclonal antibodies for Emerging Infectious Disease – Borrowing from History” authored by H.D. Marston, M.D., MPH, Catherine I. Paules, M.D., and Anthony S. Fauci,M.D NEJM March 7,2018.


The article discusses a brief history of using monoclonal antibodies as treatment for non-communicable diseases. It also states that a few monoclonal therapies have been approved for treatment of infectious diseases.The use of monoclonal antibodies to treat viral diseases is an important scientific approach to research.

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Scientific Obfuscation II

The Letter to the Editor on the article :”Monoclonal antibodies for Emerging Infectious Disease – Borrowing from History” H.D. Marston, M.D., MPH, Catherine I. Paules, M.D., and Anthony S. Fauci,M.D., NEJM March 7,2018 remains unanswered as does my letter to the NIH..

However this week (April 19, 2018 edition) the NEJM republished the March 7, 2018 article with the addition of an audio interview with Dr. Anthony Fauci. How unusual to republish the article with further audio comment?

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